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Fig. 4 | 3D Printing in Medicine

Fig. 4

From: 3D printing in medicine of congenital heart diseases

Fig. 4

Screen-display of the STL files (a) and photographs of the corresponding models (b) in a case with so-called twisted or criss-cross heart with transposition of the great arteries and a ventricular septal defect (VSD). Cast model (top left), wall model after removal of the anterior free wall of the right atrium and right and left ventricles (top right), and wall model with the apical two thirds of the ventricles removed (bottom) are shown. The cardiac valve annuli are marked by the spline curves that were graphically designed as shown in Fig. 2B. Ao, aorta; ASD, atrial septal defect; AV, aortic valve; IVC, inferior vena cava; LA, left atrium; LAA, left atrial appendage; LV, left ventricle; MV, mitral valve; SVC, superior vena cava; TV, tricuspid valve

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