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Table 1 Imaging techniques applicable for 3D printing of heart models

From: 3D printing in medicine of congenital heart diseases

Imaging Modality Imaging Techniques
Computed tomography (CT) ECG-gated breath-held contrast-enhanced angiography
Non-ECG-gated contrast-enhanced angiography
Magnetic resonance (MR) Non-contrast 3D SSFP (steady state free precession) imaging
Non-ECG-gated 3D FLASH (fast low angle shot) angiography using gadolinium-based extracellular contrast agent
ECG-gated respiration-navigated 3D IR (inversion recovery) FLASH angiography using gadolinium-based blood pool contrast agent (Gadofoveset: ABLAVAR®, Lantheus Medical Imaging, Inc. MA, USA)
ECG-gated respiration-navigated 4D MUSIC (multiphase steady-state imaging with contrast enhancement) using ultra-small supermagnetic iron oxide (USPIO: Ferumoxyol, AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Lexington, MA, USA)
Ultrasound 3D grey-scale echocardiography
3D color or power Doppler echocardiography
X-ray angiography Rotational CT angiography