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Table 1 ANOVA table illustrating the effect of anatomical model-based planning on case length of time. Green cells illustrate the lower, preferred mean time for surgeries planned with an anatomical model. Anatomical models are abbreviated as 3DP. Abbreviations: D.F. is degrees of freedom, Adj. S.S. is adjusted sum of squares, Adj. M.S. is adjusted mean squares, St.Dev is standard deviation, and C.I. is confidence interval

From: 3D printing for congenital heart disease: a single site’s initial three-yearexperience

Case length of time (anatomical model vs Traditional Planning): all included patients
Source D.F. Adj. S.S. Adj. M.S. F-Value P-Value
 3DP 1 1916 1916 0.18 0.674
 Error 144 1,557,292 10,815   
 Total 145 1,559,208    
Planning N Mean (minutes) St.Dev 95 C.I.  
 SoC 113 229.33 101.81 (209.99, 248.66)  
 3DP 33 220.7 111.3 (184.9, 256.4)  
  1. Case length of time’s Cohen’s d effect size was small (0.081) suggesting no practical difference between SoC and 3DP case length of time for all patient cases