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Table 1 Physical measurements of cadaveric hearts and 3D printed models

From: Methods for verification of 3D printed anatomic model accuracy using cardiac models as an example

Cardiac Valve Feature Model # 3D model measurement/ cadaveric model measurement in mm (% difference) ± Standard Deviation across 4 observers
Observer 1 Observer 2 Observer 3 Observer 4 3D Model (mm) Cadaveric heart (mm) % Difference
Aortic STJ perimeter 1 105.0/104.0 (101.0) 106.0/103.0 (102.9) 106.0/101.0 (105.0) 97.0/106.0 (92.0) 4.4 2.1 5.7
Aortic STJ perimeter 2 103.0/98.0 (105.1) 105.0/100.0 (105) 87.0/89.0 (97.8) 107.0/97.0 (110.3) 9.2 4.8 5.1
Aortic STJ perimeter 3 101.0/106.0 (95.3) 103.0/102.0 (101.0) 100.0/103.0 (97.1) 106.0/111.0 (95.5) 2.6 4.0 2.6
Aortic Max Diameter 1 34.4/32.8 (104.9) 34.6/34.5 (100.3) 35.1/34.1 (102.9) 32.1/33.2 (96.7) 1.3 0.8 3.6
Aortic Max Diameter 2 33.3/32.5 (102.5) 34.5/32.4 (106.5) 29.6/28.1 (105.3) 34.4/34.4 (100.0) 2.3 2.7 2.9
Aortic Max Diameter 3 32.5/31.1 (104.5) 32.3/31.0 (104.2) 29.9/32.7 (91.4) 35.3/35.6 (99.0) 2.2 2.2 6.1
Aortic Min diameter 1 29.6/29.7 (99.6) 30.6/29.9 (102.3) 29.4/31.0 (94.8) 27.3/29.2 (93.7) 1.4 0.8 4.1
Aortic Min diameter 2 27.6/25.6 (107.8) 27.6/26.4 (104.5) 23.9/23.4 (102.1) 27.4/27.4 (100.0) 1.8 1.7 3.4
Aortic Min diameter 3 28.0/27.8 (100.7) 28.1/28.4 (98.9) 31.8/26.6 (119.5) 29.6/30.2 (98.1) 1.8 1.5 10.2
Mitral Annulus perimeter 4 120.0/125.0 (96.0) 116.0/127.0 (91.3) 121.0/130.0 (93.1) 124.0/126.0 (98.4) 3.3 2.2 3.1
Mitral Annulus perimeter 5 122.0/125.0 (97.6) 112.0/119.0 (94.1) 110.0/110.0 (100.0) 101.0/121.0 (83.5) 8.6 6.3 7.3
Mitral Max Diameter 4 43.5/45.2 (96.2) 43.5/43.2 (100.7) 43.3/45.3 (95.6) 37.9/37.9 (100.0) 2.8 3.5 2.6
Mitral Max Diameter 5 40.2/43.6 (92.2) 40.0/40.9 (97.8) 47.5/45.3 (104.9) 40.4/35.3 (114.7) 3.6 4.4 9.7
Mitral Min diameter 4 26.5/28.3 (93.6) 25.1/24.9 (100.8) 25.3/27.5 (92.0) 27.3/27.3 (100) 1.0 1.5 4.4
Mitral Min diameter 5 23.9/24.5 (97.6) 24.0/28.3 (84.8) 25.6/30.3 (84.5) 23.0/29.5 (77.9) 1.1 2.6 8.2
  1. Measurements were made of aortic valves on 3 hearts and mitral valves on 2 hearts by 4 observers. Aortic valve features measured included the perimeter of the sinotubular junction (STJ), which is important in pre-procedural planning for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), and the maximum and minimum valve diameter. Mitral valve features included the perimeter of the mitral annulus, as well as the maximum and minimum diameter of the mitral valve. 3D model and cadaveric heart measurements are presented in millimeters (mm), along with the percentage difference between the 3D model and accompanying cadaveric heart measurements, for each observer. Percentage differences exceeding 100% indicate that the model measurement was larger than the cadaveric heart measurement. The standard deviation for measurements across the 4 observers is listed in the right-hand columns for 3D model feature measurement, cadaveric heart measurement, and % difference between the 3D model and cadaveric heart measurements