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Table 4 Details of cases with infection

From: A review of the manufacturing process and infection rate of 3D-printed models and guides sterilized by hydrogen peroxide plasma and utilized intra-operatively

Age / SexDiagnosisComorbid conditionsOT performedBodily regionOT time (min)Application of 3D printingDetailsNeed for re-operationMicro-organism
37/MRight orbit blowout fractureGood past healthORIFH&N67Medphor implant contouringPeriorbital cellulitis noted on post-op day 2No; resolved with antibioticsUnknown
45/MRight distal tibia chondroblastic osteosarcomaDM, HT, polycystic kidneyPartial ostectomy of tibia / fibula, intramedullary nailing to tibia with bone transport, ORIF to fibulaH&N603Cutting guide for tibia and fibula osteotomyNon-healing wound over right shinYes; debridement and closureMRSA, diphtheroid
43/FLeft tibia fracture malunionBorderline personalityTransverse tibial osteotomy and derotationLL127Cutting guide for tibia osteotomyBroken screws of medial plate noted 6-weeks after surgery with revision done; wound infection after revisionYes; debridementMSSA
69/FTuberculosis of right kneeDM, HT, scoliosisFemoral osteotomy for correction of extraarticular deformity, total knee replacement, gastrocnemius flap, skin graftingLL876Cutting guide for femoral osteotomyNon-healing superficial knee wound with debridement 5-weeks post-opYes; debridement and negative pressure therapyMRCNS, candida parapsilosis
41/MLeft tibial pseudoarthrosisDM, NF type-I, hyperlipide miaWedge osteotomy of tibia and fibula with ORIF, application of external fixatorLL239Cutting guide for tibia and fibula osteotomyDeep infection noted 7–months post-op with infection of pin tracts and osteomyelitis.Yes; multiple episodes of surgical debridement, implant removal and application of temporary external fixatorStreptococcus agalactaie
80/MCarcinoma of right tongue and alveolusGood past healthMandibulectomy with fibula graft reconstruction, pectoralis major flapH&N354Cutting guide for femoral osteotomy, plate contouringFungal infection over pectoralis major flap noted 6-months post-opNo; resolved with topical and oral antifungalsCandida albicans
38/MCarcinoma of right lower gumMallory-Weiss syndromeMandibulectomy with fibula flap reconstruction, modified radical neck dissection, selective neck dissectionH&N715Fibula graft resection guidePresentation of cellulitis 6-months post-opNo; resolved with antibioticsUnknown
41/MLeft pilon fractureGood past healthORIFLL210Plate contouringPersistent fever and postop with unhealthy hematoma and tissue noted upon debridement 1-week post-opYes; debridement and hematoma removalBurkholderia cepacia
  1. Details with regards to the eight patients amongst our cohort that developed infection. DM = diabetes mellitus, H&N = head and neck, HT = hypertension, LL ? lower limb, ORIF = open reduction internal fixation, MSSA = methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus, MRSA = methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, NF = neurofibromatosis