Skip to main content
Fig. 3 | 3D Printing in Medicine

Fig. 3

From: Intracranial vasculature 3D printing: review of techniques and manufacturing processes to inform clinical practice

Fig. 3

Examples of processing steps in CAD software. a Original segmented data set from a 3‚ÄČT MRA. b Original data set can be wrapped to reinforce small vessels, (arrow) but this may result in merging or overlapping of vessels and loss of detail (arrowheads). c Example of over-smoothing. Smoothing creates a more realistic model removing triangulation from the mesh, though over-smoothing can result in attenuation or loss of small distal vessels and distortion of the anatomy. d Triangular mesh. 3D file is made of hundreds of thousands of triangles. Before printing, the mesh often has to be fixed to remove overlapping triangles, bad edges, and inverted normals. e Hollowed models used for patient-specific simulation or intracranial device research need to be modified in CAD software to create common outflow channels and lofted parts that can be assembled with physiologic pump systems. f Cylinders (blue) may need to be placed to support fragile anatomy so that parts that do not physically touch may be 3D printed to maintain anatomical relationships

Back to article page